PompeiiinPictures

Pompeii Castellum Aquae, water tower at Porta Vesuvio.

Excavated 1902.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1903 plan of water tower. Note the north and south walls are not parallel.
A:  Base level
B:  Internal basin 0.87m below walls a and b
a:  Walls 0.40m higher than A next to the water inlet channel
b:  Walls 0.40m higher than A
c:  Containing walls for the three channels h, now missing
d:  Cascade for the water which could be stopped by a sluice which was at the mouth of the channel, where traces of iron staples remain in the wall.
e:  f:  Two layers of lead, of which only traces embedded in the floor remain, because the edifice was stripped of all the metal it contained in antiquity, so no gate, no sheets or ducts are now in place. 
           From the side remains it appears that the first of the plates was 0.34m high, the second was 0.25m on the floor of the basin. 
G:  Two walls which directed the flow into three outlet channels
h:  Outlet channels feeding through the south wall in lead pipes
m:  m’:   Water dividing walls
See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903 p. 27-31, fig. 4.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1903 plan of water tower. Note the north and south walls are not parallel.

 

A:  Base level

B:  Internal basin 0.87m below walls a and b

a:  Narrower base walls in inlet channel

b:  Impounding walls forming a basin 0.87m higher than base level A

c:  Containing walls for the three channels h, now missing

d:  Cascade for the water which could be stopped by a sluice which was at the mouth of the channel, where traces of iron staples remain in the wall.

e:  f:  Two layers of lead, of which only traces embedded in the floor remain, because the edifice was stripped of all the metal it contained in antiquity, so no gate, no sheets or ducts are now in place.

           From the side remains it appears that the first of the plates was 0.34m high, the second was 0.25m on the floor of the basin.

G:  Two walls which directed the flow into three outlet channels

h:  Outlet channels feeding through the south wall in lead pipes

m:  m’:   Water dividing walls

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903 p. 27-31, fig. 4.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. July 2003. Looking south-west across Porta del Vesuvio.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2003. Looking south-west across Porta del Vesuvio.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2015. Looking north from Vicolo dei Vettii.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2015. Looking north from Vicolo dei Vettii. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Looking north from Vicolo dei Vettii.
Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Looking north from Vicolo dei Vettii.

Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Looking north towards from Vicolo dei Vettii.
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Looking north towards from Vicolo dei Vettii.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2006. Looking north from Via del Vesuvio. Initially most people used wells or collected rainwater in the impluvium of their houses and water supply was not always reliable. The construction of an aqueduct by Augustus solved this problem, bringing water from Serino in Avellino province. A branch of the Serino aqueduct brought water to Pompeii. A water tower or castellum acquae was built at the highest point in the town next to the Vesuvian Gate. It was at about 43 metres above sea level in order to make the distribution easier. It fed a series of water columns with tanks on top which helped maintain pressure and regulate flow.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2006. Looking north from Via del Vesuvio.

Initially most people used wells or collected rainwater in the impluvium of their houses and water supply was not always reliable. 

The construction of an aqueduct by Augustus solved this problem, bringing water from Serino in Avellino province.

A branch of the Serino aqueduct brought water to Pompeii.

A water tower or castellum Aquae was built at the highest point in the town next to the Vesuvian Gate.

It was at about 43 metres above sea level in order to make the distribution easier.

It fed a series of water columns with tanks on top which helped maintain pressure and regulate flow.

 

Castellum Aquae, Pompeii. 1964. Looking north, with Vesuvian Gate on the right.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae, Pompeii. 1964. Looking north, with Vesuvian Gate on the right. 

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Acquae Pompeii. December 2005. South side of water tower showing arched decoration.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. December 2005. South side of water tower showing arched decoration.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. South side of water tower with arched decoration. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. South side of water tower with arched decoration.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1903 view of south side. The south side is the most ornate with four pillars bounding three arches. On each of the pillars is the outline of a capital carved protruding from the bricks. The three water exit channels are in the centre at the bottom.
The two windows are narrow slits on the outside but widen out more on the inside. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 26, fig. 1.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1903 view of south side.

The south side is the most ornate with four pillars bounding three arches.

On each of the pillars is the outline of a capital carved protruding from the bricks.

The three water exit channels are in the centre at the bottom.

The two windows are narrow slits on the outside but widen out more on the inside.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 26, fig. 1.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. December 2005. Looking north-west towards VI.15.18.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. December 2005. Looking north-west towards VI.15.18.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1902 excavation photo of water tower and Porta Vesuvio. The east wall is constructed in opus reticulatum, the same as the west wall. The walls of the gate are older than the Castellum Aquae which has been cut into them. The north wall, also leaning against the walls of the city, is of rougher construction, and is not parallel to the south wall.  See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 28, fig. 3. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1906, p. 97-100.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1902 excavation photo of water tower and Porta Vesuvio.

The east wall is constructed in opus reticulatum, the same as the west wall.

The walls of the gate are older than the Castellum Aquae which has been cut into them.

The north wall, also leaning against the walls of the city, is of rougher construction, and is not parallel to the south wall.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 28, fig. 3.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1906, p. 97-100.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2015. Three outlets “h” for pipes from water tower.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2015. Three outlets “h” for pipes from water tower.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2010. Three outlets "h" for pipes from water tower. Inside is a cistern which distributed water through three outlets which served different areas of the town.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Three outlets “h” for pipes from water tower.

Inside is a cistern which distributed water through three outlets which served different areas of the town.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2010. Water tower domed ceiling, looking north through central pipe outlet.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Water tower domed ceiling, looking north through central pipe outlet.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Looking east inside water tower. On the left the walls “a” and “b” join the water inlet channel. These enclose an area 0.40m higher than the base level.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Looking east inside water tower.

On the north side the low internal walls “a” and “b” join the water inlet channel.

These enclose an area 0.40m higher than the base level which is used to channel and divide water.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Painted figures above inlet channel. 
The water could be stopped by a sluice which was in front of the mouth of the channel. Traces of iron staples remain in the wall. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 27.  Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Painted figures above inlet channel.

The water could be stopped by a sluice which was in front of the mouth of the channel.

Traces of iron staples remain in the wall.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 27.

Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Painted figures above inlet channel. The water could be stopped by a sluice which was in front of the mouth of the channel. Traces of iron staples remain in the wall. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 27.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Painted figures above inlet channel.

The water could be stopped by a sluice which was in front of the mouth of the channel.

Traces of iron staples remain in the wall.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 27.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2010. Remains of painted figures above inlet channel inside water tower. According to Mazza these are a river god and three nymphs with a garland above. See Mazza C in Rivista di Studi Pompeiana XVII, 2006, p. 68.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Remains of painted figures above inlet channel inside water tower.

According to Mazza, these are a river god and three nymphs with a garland above.

See Mazza C in Rivista di Studi Pompeiana XVII, 2006, p. 68.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2006. Painted figures above inlet channel.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2006. Painted figures above inlet channel.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii, 1968. Painted figures above water inlet channel. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii, 1968. Painted figures above water inlet channel.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Aqueduct water inlet channel in north side of water tower.  Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Aqueduct water inlet channel in north side of water tower.

Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Aqueduct water inlet channel in north side of water tower. 
The impounding walls “a” and “b” are in front.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Aqueduct water inlet channel in north side of water tower.

The impounding walls “a” and “b” are in front.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Painted figures above inlet channel. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Painted figures above inlet channel.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Water inlet channel in north side. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Water inlet channel in north side. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Aqueduct water inlet channel. 
This is in rear north wall of the water tower has a height of 1.24m. 
The base of the channel, in which the water flowed, is narrower.
See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903 p. 27-31, fig. 5.
Outside the north-west corner of the Porta del Vesuvio is a fenced water channel pit, down which the light at the far end is coming.
Water came on the Augustan aqueduct of Serino which brought water from Serino in Avellino province.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Aqueduct water inlet channel.

This is in rear north wall of the water tower has a height of 1.24m.

The base of the channel, in which the water flowed, is narrower.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903 p. 27-31, fig. 5.

Outside the north-west corner of the Porta del Vesuvio is a fenced water channel pit, down which the light at the far end is coming.

Water came on the Augustan aqueduct of Serino which brought water from Serino in Avellino province.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Base level “A” walls “a” and “b” and water basin “B”.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Base level “A” walls “a” and “b” and water basin “B”.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Basin “B” inside water tower. 
Wall b is at the front, and in the basin are directing walls “G” with dividing walls “m” and “m’ “ at their rear.
The three water outlets could be regulated by a means of shutters which could stop the flow of water if lowered. 
Lead pipes or fistulae fed water to the public fountains and the public baths and to the houses of wealthy citizens.
Some houses had their own suite of baths or large fountains and fountain ornaments in their gardens.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Basin “B” inside water tower.

Wall b is at the front, and in the basin are directing walls “G” with dividing walls “m” and “m’ “ at their rear.

The three water outlets could be regulated by a means of shutters which could stop the flow of water if lowered.

Lead pipes or fistulae fed water to the public fountains and the public baths and to the houses of wealthy citizens.

Some houses had their own suite of baths or large fountains and fountain ornaments in their gardens.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2015. 
System for channelling the water into the three different pipes.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2015.

System for channelling the water into the three different pipes.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2006. System for channelling the water into the three different pipes. In the basin are the directing walls G with the dividing walls m and m’ at their rear.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2006.

System for channelling the water into the three different pipes.

In the basin are the directing walls “G” with the dividing walls “m” and “m’ “ at their rear.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii., 1968.  System with two dividing walls for channelling the water into the three different pipes.
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii., 1968.  System with two dividing walls for channelling the water into the three different pipes.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Western directing wall “G” and basin wall “b”. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Western directing wall “G” and basin wall “b”.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Western water dividing wall “m’ ”, directing wall “G”, and outer basin wall “b”. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Western water dividing wall “m’ ”, directing wall “G”, and outer basin wall “b”.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Three channel water divider. 
The two front windows above are wider on the inside than they are on the outside.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Three channel water divider.

The two front windows above are wider on the inside than they are on the outside.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Central water channel and hole for outlet pipe. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Central water channel and hole for central outlet pipe.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Front of dividing wall “G”.
This is the location of missing separator walls “c” which fed the three pipe outlets in south side.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Front of dividing wall “G”.

This is the location of missing separator walls “c” which fed the three pipe outlets in south side.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii., 1968. The outlets "h" for pipes from water tower. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii., 1968. The outlets “h” for pipes from water tower.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2012. West side entrance door with window above. 
Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2012. West side entrance door with window above.

Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. July 2010. West side entrance door with window above.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. West side entrance door with window above.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Western outer basin wall “b” and side entrance door with window above. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1968. Western outer basin wall “b” and side entrance door with window above. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

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Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2010. Domed roof of water tower.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Domed roof of water tower.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2010. Domed inside roof.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Domed inside roof.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2005. Three outlets "h" for pipes from water tower. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2005. Three outlets “h” for pipes from water tower.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. View up the east pipe outlet “h” from outside looking north.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. View up the east pipe outlet “h” from outside looking north.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2010. View up the west pipe outlet "h" from outside looking north.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. View up the west pipe outlet “h” from outside looking north.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii, July 2012. Looking towards painted figures above water inlet channel. Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii, July 2012. Looking towards painted figures above water inlet channel.

Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. View up the centre pipe outlet “h” from outside looking north. 
The location of the missing dividing walls “c” can be seen in the foreground.
At the far end is the water inlet channel with painted figures above.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. View up the centre pipe outlet “h” from outside looking north.

The location of the missing dividing walls “c” can be seen in the foreground.

At the far end is the water inlet channel with painted figures above.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Looking west along water channel.
Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Looking west along water channel.

Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2012. Looking towards west side along water channel.
Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2012. Looking towards west side along water channel.

Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Looking east along water channel.
Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. April 2015. Looking east along water channel.

Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2012. Looking towards east side along water channel.
Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2012. Looking towards east side along water channel.

Photo courtesy of Sharon M. Wolf.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2005. Looking south from water tower down Vicolo dei Vettii. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2005. Looking south from water tower down Vicolo dei Vettii.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2006. Fenced water channel pit leading to Castellum Acquae. North-west side of Vesuvian Gate.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2006. Fenced water channel pit leading to Castellum Aquae.

North-west side of Vesuvian Gate.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2011. Fenced water channel pit at north-west corner of Porta Vesuvio. The channel feeds water to the Castellum Acquae. Water for Pompeii came on the Augustan aqueduct of Serino which brought water from Serino in Avellino province. 
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2011. Fenced water channel pit at north-west corner of Porta Vesuvio.

The channel feeds water to the Castellum Aquae.

Water for Pompeii came on the Augustan aqueduct of Serino which brought water from Serino in Avellino province.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2006. Channel leading to water tower on north side of Vesuvian gate.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2006. Channel leading to water tower on north side of Vesuvian gate.

 

 

 

 

 

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Ultimo aggiornamento - Last updated: 15-Nov-2018 16:00